Tel: +86-532-83130887      Email:
Home » News » Industry News » Textile Basics : Yarns, Weaving, Fabrics

Textile Basics : Yarns, Weaving, Fabrics

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-08-07      Origin: Site


facebook sharing button
twitter sharing button
line sharing button
wechat sharing button
linkedin sharing button
pinterest sharing button
whatsapp sharing button
sharethis sharing button
Textile Basics : Yarns, Weaving, Fabrics

The broad definition of "modern textile" means : "spinning", "weaving", "dyeing", "printing", "embroidery", "finishing", of which "finishing" includes "coating", "laminating", "hot stamping", "calendering", "embossing", "composite" and so on a series of varied processes, but also marks the modern textile industry's advanced productivity level.


01 Classification

It can be divided into two main categories, depending on the source:

natural fiber

fibers that are taken straight from the tissues of living things, such cotton, kapok, hemp, flax, ramie, sisal, coir, wool, rabbit hair, mohair, alpaca hair, mulberry silk, quassia silk, etc.

chemical fiber

Chemical fiber  is the use of natural or synthetic polymers as raw materials, chemical methods and mechanical processing of fibers.

Synthetic Fiber

It is created using low-molecular-weight natural substances including coal, petroleum, some agricultural byproducts, etc. It is chemically polymerized, or condensed, into polymers after manufacturing monomers, and then it is manufactured into textile fibers.

02 Common Indicators

1. Metric count (Nm) (Constant weight system)

Metric count refers to the number of meters of length of 1g fiber or yarn at a given moisture regain rate in metric counts. The larger the value, the finer the yarn. Metric count is mainly used in woolen and fancy yarns. 

2. English Counts (Ne/S) (Constant weight system)

The multiple of 840 yards per pound of yarn weight at the metric rate of moisture recovery are what the English figures are based on. Since the inch count system uses a fixed weight, the finer the yarn, the higher the count.

3. Denier (D) (Constant Length System)

The term "denier" refers to a 9000 meter length fiber or yarn with a weight in grams in the metric system. commonly applied to silk and synthetic fibers. The thicker the fiber or yarn is, the higher the value.

4. Tex (Tex) (Fixed length system)

Tex is the weight in grams of a 1000 meter length of fiber or yarn at a nominal rate of moisture regain. The higher the tex value, the thicker the fiber or yarn.

03 Unit conversion

Conversion of tex and metric counts (N):


Conversion between Tex ( tex ) and Daniel ( D ) :


Conversion between Tex ( tex ) and English counts( S ) :


Conversion between Daniel ( D ) and English counts( S ) :


(K-values: cotton yarn K=583.1, pure chemical fiber K=590.5, polyester-cotton yarn K=587.6, cotton viscose yarn (75:25) K=584.8, dimensional cotton yarn (50:50) K=587.0)

Conversion of Daniel ( D ) and metric counts (N):



01 Weaving process of woven fabrics

Warping --- Sizing --- warp rebeaming --- Reeding --- Setting up machine --- Weaving --- Blanks inspection

(Some fabrics require twisting of the yarn, which is done on a twisting machine before weaving.)

02 Common machines and equipment in weaving mills

1.Warping machine:It is a device used to neatly roll reels of yarn onto a large drum.

2. Sizing machine: It is used to sizing the whole yarn to prevent the yarn from being worn out in the weaving process.

sizing machine

3.warp rebeaming machine:It is used to merge yarns from several tubes onto one tube to achieve the required number of warp yarns.

warp rebeaming machine
4.Twisting machine:A machine that twists yarns in a clockwise direction is called an "S" twist, while a counterclockwise direction is called a "Z" twist.


5.Water Jet Loom: A shuttleless loom that pulls the weft yarn through the bobbin opening by spraying a jet of water, with a fast rotating speed and high output.


6. Jet Loom: A shuttleless loom that pulls the weft yarn through the bobbin by jetting airflow, with a higher rotational speed than the water jet loom, and better flatness, but with a higher weaving cost.

Air jet loom


01 Basic organization of woven fabrics

The organization of warp and weft yarns interwoven one above the other.

Plain:The organization of warp and weft yarns interwoven one above the other.

Common plain fabrics

Cotton fabric varieties: plain cloth, poplin;

Woolen fabrics varieties: vanity, Pyrex, tweed;

Silk fabric varieties: power spinning, georgette, taffeta, double crepe;

Hemp fabric varieties: summer cloth, linen;

Chemical fiber fabric varieties: human cotton cloth (viscose flat cloth), polyester silk spinning, etc..

Twill: warp tissue points (or weft tissue points) continuous into a diagonal tissue is called twill tissue.

Common twill fabrics

Cotton fabrics: twill, khaki, denim;

Woolen fabrics: beige, walda tweed, what flavor tweed, uniform tweed;

Silk fabrics: silk twill, beautiful silk and so on.

Satin: The interlacing of warp and weft yarns occurs only once every interval of four or more yarns, and these interlacing points are separate, discontinuous, and evenly distributed within a tissue cycle. The surface of the fabric has a long warp or weft direction of the floating long line.

Common Satin Fabrics

Woolen fabrics: dress tweed.

Cotton fabrics: horizontal satin, straight satin.

Silk fabrics: crepe satin, brocade satin, soft satin.

Related Products

Contact Us
Leave a Message
Contact Us
Make weaving easier, Make life better




 Qingdao Address:NO.1219 Jiaozhou Bay West Road, Huangdao District, Qingdao China
Vietnam Branch Address:161, đường Lê Lợi, Khu phở 3, Phường Hòa Phú, Thành phố Thú Dầu Một, Tinh Bình Dường, Việt Nam
Turkey Branch Address:Mineralicavus Mah. Çelik Cad. POZITIF PLAZA No:17C NILUFER BURSA
India Branch Address:A1055/56,Ragukul Textile Market ,Ring Road ,Surat,Gujrat ,India
Copyright © 2023 Qingdao Haijia Machinery Co., Ltd. All Rights Reserved. | Sitemap | Privacy Policy | Support By Leadong